CTS had been providing emissions rate measurements and analysis from 2004. These measurements have been performed on components and on entire systems. Measurements of leak rates are based on measurements of concentration change in time of the sealed test enclosure. Initially, concentration measurements were performed using a Perkin Elmer gas chromatography apparatus, but the Innova Infra Red Photo Acoustic instrument was found to provide more accuracy and is currently being used due to an increased demand for studies of refrigerant emission rates. CTS had purchased another Innova unit to be able to meet this increased demand.